Global tourism in 2014 contributed 3.7 percent (US$2.5 trillion) to the world's GDP, with its total contribution rising to almost 10 percent of world GDP. "The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?". [46], Predictions for the extent to which impacts of tourism will impact the world's economic system appear to agree that the number of international tourist arrivals will reach approximately 1.6 billion by the year 2020. "The Economic Impacts of Tourism: A Special Issue". This can have dire consequences on local flora and fauna as invasives tend to be particularly successful in colonizing disturbed areas where the local biotic communities have been affected and potentially harmed. Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N., & Dalal-Clayton, D. B. Community participation strengthens communities and help to create a sense of belonging, trust and credibility among members. Entertainment and recreational facilities will allow for more opportunity to socialize and engage with each other. One positive is the creation of business and jobs for local craftsmen, who are able to sell their goods to tourists. Practically all tourist activities have an ecological impact on the host destination. It also opens up the community to the wider world, new ideas, new experiences, and new ways of thinking.[32]. Benefit tourism is a political term coined in the 1990s and later used for the perceived threat that a huge number of citizens from eight of the ten new nations given membership in the European Union in the 2004 enlargement of the European Union would move to the existing member states to benefit from their social welfare systems rather than to work. It stimulates interest in local crafts, traditional activities, songs, dance, and oral histories. Positive impacts are related more to the materialistic well-being, rather than to the happiness of a host community or tourist. [17] This direct impact of can severely damage the delicate balance of the food webs and keystone species. [35] Employment is anticipated to rise parallel to GDP contributions; reaching 3.9 percent of world employment in 2025 (up from 3.6 percent in 2015). Firstly, tourism is seen as only one aspect of change in society. Tourism provides the economic stimulus to allow for diversification of employment and income potential, and develop resources within the community. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. For practical reasons, this article also covers tourism on the West Bank, since it is closely interconnected with the mass tourism in Israel. [1][2], Claims of benefit tourism by EU citizens have been described as unfounded and misleading by research organisations. Muchapondwa, E., & Stage, J. [31] Culture shock may impact both tourists and their hosts.[34]. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum): Spread fast, don’t allow native species to grow, can cause forest fires to spread rapidly. Habituation of wildlife to human contact and to unusual food sources can have a detrimental effect on the wildlife and pose dangers for humans. This threat was in several countries used as a reason for creating temporary work or benefit restrictions for citizens from the eight new member states. When power is supplied by diesel or gasoline generators there is additional noise and pollution. Environmental impacts affect the carrying capacity of the area, vegetation, air quality, bodies of water, the water table, wildlife, and natural phenomena. [10] Indirect impacts on trails include changes in soil porosity, changes to microflora composition, problems with seed dispersion and germination, and degradation of soil nutrient composition.[11]. Zhang, J., Madsen, B., & Jensen-Butler, C. (2007). Since 2009 there has been a steady yearly increase in the number of tourist arrivals worldwide of approximately 4.4 percent. "The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: present and future effects on coral reefs". The mere presence of humans can increase the heart rate and stress hormones of even the largest animal. Wildlife safaris in African countries such as Kenya, Botswana, and Tanzania have been popular for many years. [46] Of these travelers, arrivals in developing countries are expected to continue growing from the recorded 47% of total arrivals recorded in 2011 as access to these more remote locations becomes easier[36][37][38] [40][41] A positive impact can refer to the increase in jobs, a higher quality of life for locals, and an increase in wealth of an area. [36][40], Negative impacts are the effects, that are caused in most cases, at the tourist destination site with detrimental impacts to the social and cultural area, as well as the natural environment. In addition, tourism also brings employment opportunities, enhances the economy of the region, and creates revenue for the local government. The impacts of tourism include the effects of tourism on the environment and on destination communities, and its economic contributions. [35], Effects of tourism on the environment. They want to show off their community that tourists have chosen to visit. "Regional economic impacts of tourism: The case of Denmark". However, development economists will argue that culture can be utilized just as any other natural resource. On the other hand, others argue that acculturation and modernization will help traditional communities adjust in a modern world. Local people also see examples of foreign lifestyles and consumption in advertisements, magazines, television, and films, and therefore tourism is not the only influence on local culture. It can be a source of pride for local communities, and allows them to look at their history, and cultural heritage and develop their own community identity. The demonstration effect was introduced to tourism when researchers were looking into the effects of social influences from tourism on local communities. [23] With the ever-increasing number of tourist arrivals, there is an ever-increasing quantity of global greenhouse gasses (GHG) being produced by the tourism industry.

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