The Developmental Niche CHARLES M. SUPER AND SARA HARKNESS Most psychology is about middle-class North Americans of European ancestry, or about middle- class Europeans. Anecdotally, it seems that children stop the helping seen in toddlers once they understand that it is actually helping rather than playing. sv:Ekologisk nisch es:Nicho ecológico It could be argued that this behavior was selected for and has its roots in genes or other aspects of the child’s biology. The theory of the cognitive niche, I believe, has several advantages as an explanation of the evolution of the human mind. This sort of a “bottom-up,” activity-based, relational approach may be fruitful in this area of research. Asian and Latinx parents tend to promote strong family bonds (e.g., filial piety, familismo), appropriate and respectful behavior, and social-emotional competence as key socialization goals (Baptiste, 2005; Chao & Tseng, 2002; Cheah & Rubin, 2004; Fuller & García Coll, 2010; Halgunseth, Ispa, & Rudy, 2006). Although parental ethnotheories are often not explicit or developed into a coherent and internally consistent set of beliefs, when parents confront choices, the culturally influenced assumptions that give meaning to the available options may be talked about more explicitly. We also argued that moral norms are not just arbitrary, local social conventions that are imposed on children and conformed to, nor are they simply reducible to evolved emotional reactions or innate modules. Study 13 Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Niche Theory flashcards from Maria R. on StudyBlue. These are influenced by their own as well as their society's ideas of whom they wish the child to become. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The German mothers established interactions that facilitated proto-conversations, turn-taking, and bestowing a sense of agency in the infant. How is it that children come to live in our human space of reasons and obligations? Especially in traditional rural societies, reproduction begins soon after sexual maturity and seems to be more quantitatively oriented, whereas reproduction in urban educated societies is delayed until the end of an educational moratorium and seems to be more qualitatively oriented. H. Keller, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. On the whole, broader ecological systems as well as more specific aspects of the developmental niche form the opportunity structures of the developing person. Heterogeneity in social identities, resources, experiences, and cultural background cohere to create a unique developmental niche for children (Super & Harkness, 1986, 1997). They are simply assumed to be the “right way” to raise children. To illustrate, using a sample of African American and White families, Lareau (2011/2003) found that (irrespective of race) higher-SES parents adopted a cultural ethos of intensive investment in children's cognitive and academic development and heightened involvement in their schooling. The developmental niche children are embedded within arises from the interaction between factors and processes operating across multiple levels of influence. More formally, the niche includes how a population responds to the abundance of its resources and enemies (e. g., by growing when resources are abundant, and predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it affects those same factors (e.g., by reducing the abundance of resources through consumption and contributing to the population growth of enemies by falling prey to them). Mediated through the culturally primed beliefs and values (‘ethnotheories’) of their social environment, children acquire and construct their environmental and social competence through participatory learning as well as by adopting and creating developmental niches (‘niche picking’) which include the implicit and explicit reflection of sex differences as concomitants of adult reproductive life. From Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. M. (1994). (After Root, 1967), It should be noted that "niche" of Hutchinson (a description of the ecological space occupied by a species) is subtly different than the "niche" as defined by Grinnell (an ecological role, that may or may not be actually filled by a species -- see vacant niches).

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